How the brain controls impulsive behavior may be significantly different than psychologists have thought for the last 40 years. That is the unexpected conclusion of a study by an international team of neuroscientists published in the Aug. 31 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. Impulse control is an important aspect of the brain's executive functions - the procedures that it uses to control its own activity. Problems with impulse control are involved in ADHD and a number of other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. The current research set out to better understand how the brain is wired to control impulsive behavior. "Our study was focused on the control of eye movements, but we think it is widely applicable, " said Vanderbilt Ingram Professor of Neuroscience Jeffrey Schall, co-author of the new study.
Failure to finish high school education is often associated with inattention rather than hyperactivity according to a new study from the University of Montreal. For almost 20 years, lead author of the study, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Pingault, affiliated with Sainte-Justine Mother and Child University Hospital, evaluated data from parents and teachers of 2000 children and concluded that children with attention problems need preventative intervention early in their development. Teachers evaluated their students' attention problems, such as inability to concentrate, absentmindedness, tendencies to give up or being easily distracted. Hyperactivity was defined by behavioral characteristics, such as restlessness, running around, squirming and being fidgety. According to the research, only 29% of children with attention deficits finished high school compared with 89% of children with no inattention problems.
Inattention, Not Hyperactivity, Is Associated With Educational Failure: School Support For ADHD Children May Be Missing The Mark
New research from the University of Montreal shows that inattention, rather than hyperactivity, is the most important indicator when it comes to finishing a high school education. "Children with attention problems need preventative intervention early in their development, " explained lead author Dr. Jean-Baptiste Pingault, who is also affiliated with Sainte-Justine Mother and Child University Hospital. The researchers came to their conclusion after looking at data collected from the parents and teachers of 2000 children over a period of almost twenty years. In this study, attention problems were evaluated by teachers who looked for behaviour such as an inability to concentrate, absentmindedness, or a tendency to give up or be easily distracted. Hyperactivity was identified by behaviour such as restlessness, running around, squirming and being fidgety.
Over a ten-year period, the prevalence of children diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) rose from 7% to 9% of all children, an increase of 28%, according to a report issued by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the CDC. The period studied was from 1998-2000 through 2007-2009. The authors are not yet sure whether the statistics represent a real increase, or reflect more aggressive diagnosis and reporting. They believe it is probably mainly due to the latter. They added that this report concentrated on children aged between 5 and 17 years. Lead researcher, Lara Akanbami, said: "It's unlikely that most of this is due to a new epidemic of ADHD." Boys versus girls - more boys are affected by ADHD than girls. The prevalence among boys increased to 12.
New research led by The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) and the University of Toronto has identified more genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) and shows that there is an overlap between some of these genes and those found in other neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study is published in the August 10 advance online edition of Science Translational Medicine. The research team was led by Dr. Russell Schachar, Senior Scientist and Psychiatrist at SickKids and Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, and Dr. Stephen Scherer, Senior Scientist at SickKids, Director of The Centre for Applied Genomics at SickKids and the McLaughlin Centre at the University of Toronto. The scientists used microarrays (gene-chip technology) to study the DNA of 248 unrelated patients with ADHD.