Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University studied more than 11, 000 children and published their findings in today's (5th March 2012) Pediatrics. They have shown that younger children that have sleep disordered breathing have a tendency to develop behavioral difficulties, such as hyperactivity and aggressiveness, as well as emotional symptoms and difficulty with peer relationships. Study leader, Karen Bonuck, Ph.D., professor of family and social medicine and of obstetrics & gynecology and women's health at Einstein said: "This is the strongest evidence to date that snoring, mouth breathing, and apnea [abnormally long pauses in breathing during sleep] can have serious behavioral and social-emotional consequences for children ... Parents and pediatricians alike should be paying closer attention to sleep-disordered breathing in young children, perhaps as early as the first year of life.
If you are looking for a particular object - say a yellow pencil - on a cluttered desk, how does your brain work to visually locate it? For the first time, a team led by Carnegie Mellon University neuroscientists has identified how different neural regions communicate to determine what to visually pay attention to and what to ignore. This finding is a major discovery for visual cognition and will guide future research into visual and attention deficit disorders. The study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, used various brain imaging techniques to show exactly how the visual cortex and parietal cortex send direct information to each other through white matter connections in order to specifically pick out the information that you want to see. "We have demonstrated that attention is a process in which there is one-to-one mapping between the first place visual information comes from the eyes into the brain and beyond to other parts of the brain, " said Adam S.
Children showing difficulty carrying out routine actions, such as getting dressed, playing with particular types of games, drawing, copying from the board in school and even typing at the computer, could be suffering from developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and not necessarily from ADHD or other more familiar disorders, points out Prof. Sara Rosenblum of the Department of Occupational Therapy at the University of Haifa, whose new study set out to shed new light on DCD. "In quite a few cases, children are not diagnosed early enough or are given an incorrect diagnosis, which can lead to frustration and a sense of disability. It can even result in a decline that requires psychological therapy, " she explains. A person with DCD suffers from childhood and throughout adult life.
In the U.S., in 2007, the prescription medication Vyvanse was introduced for the treatment of ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years old by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The following year the medication was approved to treat ADHD in adults, and approved in 2010 to treat adolescents aged 13 to 17 with ADHD. Following results from a randomized withdrawal study assessing the effectiveness of Vyvanse® for treating ADHD in individuals aged 18 to 55 years old, the FDA has now approved Vyvanse® (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) Capsules, (CII) as a maintenance treatment for adults with the disorder, according to Shire plc. Each of the 123 adult study participants who met DSM-IV-TR® criteria for ADHD received treatment with the medication for a minimum for six months before taking part in the Phase 4, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal design study.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) affects 5-9% of youth and is frequently treated with stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine products. A recent safety communication from the US Food and Drug Administration advised that all patients undergoing ADHD treatment be monitored for changes in heart rate or blood pressure. Amidst growing concern over the risks of stimulant use in youth, a study by Dr. Mark Olfson of the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, and his colleagues, published in the February 2012 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, assessed the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in children and adolescents without known heart conditions treated with stimulants for ADHD. It is one of the largest studies to date focusing primarily on youth while controlling for pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors.