Mayo Clinic researchers have found that multiple exposures to anesthesia at a young age are associated with higher rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). Children exposed to two or more anesthetics before age 3 had more than double the incidence of ADHD than children who had no exposure, says David Warner, M.D., a Mayo Clinic pediatric anesthesiologist and investigator on the observational study. The findings are published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. When basic science studies in the medical literature began to suggest anesthesia used in surgery causes changes in the brains of young animals, Dr. Warner and a group of researchers at Mayo Clinic took note. "Those studies piqued our interest, " Dr. Warner says. "We were skeptical that the findings in animals would correlate with kids, but it appears that it does.
A study by researchers at Mayo Clinic, Rochester Minn., and published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, reveals that children who have been under anesthesia many times when they are young have a greater risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). According to David Warner, M.D, a Mayo Clinic pediatric anesthesiologist, and researchers of this study, kids who have been exposed to anesthesia more than twice before the age of 3 are twice as likely to have ADHD than children who have not been exposed. Warner and team began the study after other research suggested that anesthesia alters the brain of young animals. He said: "Those studies piqued our interest. We were skeptical that the findings in animals would correlate with kids, but it appears that it does." The study involved findings from a previous epidemiological study which observed the records of children's education from 1976 to 1982 in Rochester, Minn.
It has long been known that psychostimulant drugs have the paradoxical effect of reducing hyperactivity. [Psychostimulant drugs include methylphenidate - known by the trade names Ritalin, Concerta, and Methylin - and methamphetamine]. Since the mid-1950s, millions of children and adults have been prescribed stimulant medications to control attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). But for more than seven decades, since the first experiment that gave an amphetamine drug to children diagnosed with behavioral problems, scientists have not known how stimulants work to control hyperactivity. Now, a researcher at SUNY Downstate Medical Center, working with colleagues in Mexico, has identified the probable mechanism by which certain stimulants accomplish this paradoxical reduction of motor activity.
While children who suffer from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) struggle with hyperactive-impulses and have trouble maintaining attention, a recent study found that a structured physical activity program may help to improve their muscular capacities, motor skills, behavior assessments, and the ability to process information. This new exploratory study was released in the recent issue of the Journal of Attention Disorders (published by SAGE). Authors Claudia Verret, Marie-Claude Guay, Claude Berthiaume, Phillip Gardiner, and Louise BĂ liveau enrolled ten children in a physical activity program that included a warm-up, aerobic activity, muscular and motor-skill exercises, and a cool-down. The objective of each session was to maintain moderate to high-intensity activity throughout each session as observed by a heart-rate monitor.
While pharmacologic agents have a demonstrated efficacy in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), some children have suboptimal response to a single pharmacologic agent. A recent study by Dr. Timothy E. Wilens and colleagues, published in the January 2012 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to assess efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended release (GXR) as an adjunct to psychostimulants in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD who had a suboptimal response to a psychostimulant alone. As reported in the article "A Controlled Trial of Extended-release Guanfacine and Psychostimulants for Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, " Wilens and colleagues conducted a nine week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-optimization study, with participants in 59 study sites who continued their stable dose of psychostimulant given in the morning and were randomized to receive GXR in the morning, GXR in the evening, or placebo.