Brain Plasticity Promoted And Memory Loss Prevented In Alzheimer's Disease By Intravenous Vaccination
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable, progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting over five million people worldwide, and is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Currently, intravenous human immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment is being explored in multiple off-label uses other than immunotherapy, including AD. Several clinical studies assessing the tolerability and efficacy of IVIG in Alzheimer's disease subjects are in progress with inconsistent outcomes. Recent studies conducted by Dr. Giulio Maria Pasinetti, Saunders Family Chair and Professor in Neurology and Psychiatry at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, suggests that the divergent outcomes in Alzheimer's disease clinical studies of IVIG may be due to differences in temporal administration and administered dosages.
According to a new study, the neuron-killing pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which begins before clinical symptoms appear, requires the presence of both amyloid-beta (a-beta) plaque deposits and elevated levels of an altered protein called p-tau. Without both, progressive clinical decline associated with AD in cognitively healthy older individuals is "not significantly different from zero, " reports a team of scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine in the Archives of Neurology. "I think this is the biggest contribution of our work, " said Rahul S. Desikan, MD, PhD, research fellow and resident radiologist in the UC San Diego Department of Radiology and first author of the study. "A number of planned clinical trials - and the majority of Alzheimer's studies - focus predominantly on a-beta.
The risk of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline could be reduced by engaging in daily physical activity, even in those who are older than 80 years. Results of the researchers study from the Rush University Medical Center are published online in the April 18 issue of Neurology. Leading author, Dr. Aron S. Buchman, an associate professor of neurological sciences at Rush, declared: "The results of our study indicate that all physical activities including exercise as well as other activities such as cooking, washing the dishes, and cleaning are associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease. These results provide support for efforts to encourage all types of physical activity even in very old adults who might not be able to participate in formal exercise, but can still benefit from a more active lifestyle.
Scientist studying the way Alzheimer's takes root in the brain have identified important new similarities between a mouse model and human Alzheimer's. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that brain plaques in mice are associated with disruption of the ability of brain regions to network with each other. This decline parallels earlier results from human studies, suggesting that what scientists learn about Alzheimer's effects on brain networks in the mice will likely be transferable to human disease research. The study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, is among the first to precisely quantify the effects of Alzheimer's disease plaques on brain networks in an animal model. Until now, scientists studying Alzheimer's in animals have generally been limited to assessments of structural brain damage and analyses of brain cell activity levels.
A study published Online First by Archives of Neurology, a JAMA Network publication, reveals that patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease who received immunotherapy with the antibody bapineuzumab showed decreases in a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker. According to the researchers the results may indicate subsequent effects on the degenerative process. According to background information in the article, Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Amongst other characteristics, AD patients have deposits of extracellular Î -amyloid (AÎ ) plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, together with decreases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AÎ and higher levels of CSF tau proteins. The researchers write that one of the largest disease-modifying methods currently evaluated for AD is bapineuzumab, which is an anti-AÎ monoclonal antibody, as well as immunotherapies with antibodies against AÎ.