Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis: Management Strategies To Prevent Bone Loss And Related Fractures In High-Risk Patients
Oral glucocorticoids are commonly prescribed for a wide variety of disorders, most commonly for rheumatoid arthritis, obstructive pulmonary disease and inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the use of these medications can result in rapid bone loss during the first three to six months of therapy, leading to increased risk of fragility fractures. Although awareness of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) has grown in recent years, it still remains vastly under-diagnosed and under-treated. As a result, and despite the availability of effective treatment options to reduce the risk of fractures, millions of patients around the world are left at risk of potentially serious fractures. In an effort to address this serious problem, the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) have published a guidance document* which provides a framework for the development of national assessment and treatment guidelines.
The recreational use of trampolines has increased significantly since the 1950s, and even though trampolines can be fun, they can also cause serious injury. Last week Joba Chamberlain, a baseball player for the Yankees, underwent surgery at St. Joseph's Hospital after injuring his ankle while jumping on a trampoline with his 5-year-old son. Chamberlain was released on Sunday and will spend the following six weeks in a cast as a he recovers from his injury, one that could have threatened his career. John Purvis, M.D., spokesperson for the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS), said: "Although trampolines can be fun for both kids and adults, they pose a high risk for injuries, especially when two or more people jump at one time. Orthopedic surgeons recommended that trampolines not be used in home environments or in outdoor playgrounds because of the high risk of injuries from this activity.
In order to move, living beings need muscles, and, more specifically, skeletal muscles that are controlled by the nervous system. Skeletal muscles are composed of cylindrical muscle fibres with a multitude of peripheral nuclei. Until now, little was known about the mechanism used to position nuclei on the edge of muscle fibres. A team of French-American researchers has tried to better understand the reasons behind nuclei layout. Edgar Gomes and his team of collaborators have identified the mechanism involved in positioning nuclei in muscle fibres. The researchers identified (in Drosophila and mice) two proteins involved in positioning the nuclei: protein Kif5B, which belongs to the kinesin family (molecular motor), and protein MAP7, which is used to move different organelles in cells.
Low bone density medications, such as Fosamax, Boniva and Actonel, may have a protective effect for endometrial cancer, according to a study at Henry Ford Hospital. Endometrial cancer affects more than 45, 000 women a year in the U.S., usually in their 60s, although it can occur before 40. A type of uterine cancer, it's the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer, and there is no known preventive medication for women at high risk of developing it. "The results of the study suggest that use of low bone density medications may have a protective effect on endometrial cancer, or that women who take them get a less-aggressive cancer, " says Sharon Hensley Alford, Ph.D, lead author of the study, and a researcher in Public Health Services at Henry Ford Hospital. The classification for these medications is bisphosphonates.
The Lancet has published 'unequivocal evidence' from the world's largest database on hip replacements, which confirms that stemmed metal-on-metal (MOM) implants, especially those with a larger head size and those implanted in women, whose failure rates are up to four times higher, have a substantially higher fail rate than hip implants made from other materials. The researchers are calling for a ban of using stemmed MOM hip implants. The Lancet published the study 10 days following the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (MHRA) announcement of MOM implants requiring annual check-ups. Whilst the use of stemmed MOM hip implants has declined in England and Wales, the USA still uses these implants extensively according to recent data. In 2009, 35% of hip implants in the U.