Abdominal tumors involving both roots of the celiac and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) are deemed unresectable by conventional surgical methods, as removal would cause necrosis of the organs that are supplied by those blood vessels. A case report published in the American Journal of Transplantation presents a novel surgical technique that enables surgeons to remove tumors that are unresectable by the usual surgical techniques. Led by Tomoaki Kato, MD, FACS, of Columbia University, surgeons removed tumors in 3 patients involving both the celiac artery and SMA using new surgical techniques never performed before, known as "ex vivo" surgery where the organs are removed to do surgery. First, surgeons removed entire abdominal organs together with the tumor. The patient is "organless" during this period.
An annual report from the American Cancer Society says much of the suffering and death from cancer could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet and physical activity, reduce obesity, and expand the use of established screening tests. The report, Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Facts and Figures (CPED), outlines gaps and opportunities that contribute to cancer mortality, and says social, economic, and legislative factors profoundly influence individual health behaviors. Since 1992, the American Cancer Society has published CPED as a resource to strengthen cancer prevention and early detection efforts at the local, state, and national levels. Below are highlights of this year's report. Tobacco Use Cigarette smoking prevalence in US adults declined modestly between 2005 and 2010.
Although breast cancer-related fatigue is common, it generally runs a self-limiting course and does not persist as long as people had thought; especially in cases of early-stage breast cancer, researchers reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. The authors explained that long-term fatigue, which is often disabling, is common after patients undergo treatment for cancer. However, they added that studies had not extensively looked at how persistent CRF (cancer-related fatigue) was; i.e. how common long-term CRF might be. In an Abstract in the journal, the researchers wrote: ".. . hence, relationships to cancer, surgery, and adjuvant therapy are unclear. " Dr. David Goldstein, of Prince of Wales Hospital in Randwick, Australia, and team set out to determine how common cancer-related fatigue was one year after treatment.
Each time a release of radioactivity occurs, questions arise and debates unfold on the health risks at low doses - and still, just over a year after the disaster at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, unanswered questions and unsettled debates remain. Now a special issue of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, published by SAGE, examines what is new about the debate over low-dose radiation risk, specifically focusing on areas of agreement and disagreement, including quantitative estimates of cancer risk as radiation dose increases, or what is known as the linear non-threshold theory (LNT). The issue, which includes essays written by the top experts in their fields, does not claim to put the argument to rest - however, it does provide an indispensible update of the existing literature.
Hans Vogel, a professor in the biological sciences department, is the guest editor of a special issue of the journal Biochemistry and Cell Biology that focuses on lactoferrin, an important iron-binding protein with many health benefits. "Some people describe this protein as the 'Swiss army knife' of the human host defense system, " says Vogel. "We now know that lactoferrin has many functions in innate immunity and that it plays a role in protecting us from bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections. It can even protect us from some forms of cancer ." Lactoferrin - which is secreted into human milk, blood and other biofluids - has attracted a lot of interest from academics and industry. Furthermore, Vogel says it's likely the only protein that garners its own regular scientific conference.