The goal of cancer treatment is to match the right drug to the right target in the right patient. But before such "personalized" drugs can be developed, more knowledge is needed about specific genomic alterations in cancers and their sensitivity to potential therapeutic agents. Now an academic-industry collaboration is releasing the first results from a new and freely available resource that marries deeply detailed cancer genome data with predictors of drug response, information that could lead to refinements in cancer clinical trials and future treatments. The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), authored by scientists at the Broad Institute, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Foundation, and the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, is described in the March 29 issue of the journal Nature.
Immediately giving someone having a heart attack a dose of glucose mixed with insulin and potassium (known as "GIK") could reduce their chance of cardiac arrest or dying by 50%, according to new research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 61st Annual Scientific Session in Chicago this week. Dr Harry P. Selker, executive director of the Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies at Tufts Medical Center, led the study with co-principal investigator and project director Dr Joni Beshansky. Selker told the press: "Acute coronary syndromes represent the largest cause of death in this country. GIK is a very inexpensive treatment that appears to have promise in reducing those deaths and morbidity." GIK contains glucose, to provide the heart with fuel when there is a reduced blood supply, and insulin to help move the glucose into the cells.
Results from a Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brodalumab (formerly AMG 827) in 198 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The researchers of the 12 week study randomly assigned participants with a psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score of 12 or more and affected body surface area 10 percent or more to receive brodalumab (70 mg, 140 mg or 210 mg at day one and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 or 280 mg monthly), or placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was achieved in all brodalumag groups, whose average improvement in psoriasis area (in percentage) and severity index (PASI) was higher than those of patients in the placebo group (p<0.
New ongoing research published in the journal Science Translational Medicine suggests organ transplant recipients may not require anti-rejection medication in the future thanks to the power of stem cells, which may prove to be able to be manipulated in mismatched kidney donor and recipient pairs to allow for successful transplantation without immunosuppressive drugs. Northwestern Medicine® and University of Louisville researchers are partnering on a clinical trial to study the use of donor stem cell infusions that have been specially engineered to "trick" the recipients' immune system into thinking the donated organ is part of the patient's natural self, thus gradually eliminating or reducing the need for anti-rejection medication. "The preliminary results from this ongoing study are exciting and may have a major impact on organ transplantation in the future, " said Joseph Leventhal, MD, PhD, transplant surgeon at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and associate professor of surgery and director of kidney and pancreas transplantation at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Detecting the presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood of women with early breast cancer after surgery but before the start of chemotherapy can provide useful information about their chances of surviving the disease. CTCs are cancer cells which are detectable in patients with a solid tumour and their value in the prognosis of metastatic breast cancer has been known for a few years. Until now, however, there has been little information about their role in early disease. Results to be presented today (Thursday) from the first large-scale study of the relevance of CTCs in early breast cancer prognosis show that patients with at least five CTCs detected straight after surgery have a four-fold increase in risk of recurrence and a three-fold increase in risk of death. Dr. Bernadette JÃ ger, from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Innenstadt, Ludwig Maximilian University Hospital Munich, Germany, told the 8th European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-8) that, in addition to helping provide a more accurate evaluation of disease outcome, CTCs might also become targets for treatment in the future.