Researchers have combined bioactive peptides to successfully stimulate wound healing. The in vitro and in vivo study, published today in PLoS ONE, demonstrates that the combination of two peptides stimulates the growth of blood vessels and promotes re-growth of tissue. Further development of these peptides could lead to a new treatment for chronic and acute wounds. The team tested a newly-created peptide, UN3, in pre-clinical models aimed to simulate impaired wound healing as is seen in patients with peripheral vascular diseases or uncontrolled diabetes. The peptide led to a 50% increase in blood vessel wall development, a 250% increase in growth of blood vessels, and a 300% increase in cell migration in response to the injury. "Using double-blinded in vivo experiments, we then applied the wound-healing peptide UN3 with a peptide created during a previous study, named comb1.
Resident Memory T Cells Prevalent In The Skin Are More Protective In Fighting Infection Than Central Memory T Cells In The Bloodstream
TREM Rx, Inc., a biotechnology company with a proprietary technology platform for novel vaccines delivered to the skin, has announced the results of an in vivo preclinical study that shows, for the first time, that powerful cells of the immune system called TREMs (T Resident Effector Memory cells) prevalent in the skin can mediate a protective immune response that is far stronger than memory T cells that circulate in the bloodstream. The study was published in the online edition of Nature and was led by TREM Rx scientific founder, Dr. Thomas S. Kupper, the Thomas B. Fitzpatrick Professor of Dermatology at Harvard Medical School, and chair of Dermatology at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. This research and previous work by Dr. Kupper's group demonstrated that a stronger generalized T cell immune response, and in particular a more robust TREM response, can be produced by delivering a viral vaccine vector to the upper skin tissues, as compared to below the skin or into the muscle.
Very recently, researchers discovered an important population of immune cells called memory T cells living in parts of the body that are in contact with the environment (e.g., skin, lung, GI tract). How these "resident" memory T cells are generated was unknown, and their importance with regard to how our immune system remembers infection and how it prevents against re-infection is being studied intensively. Now, a study by a Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) research team led by Xiaodong Jiang, PhD, research scientist and Thomas S. Kupper, MD, Chair of the BWH Department of Dermatology, and the Thomas B. Fitzpatrick Professor of Dermatology at Harvard, has used a model involving a vaccinia virus infection of the skin to answer important questions about how these newly discovered cells protect us.
In a paper published today in the journal Cell, a team from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has explained for the first time how a long-studied protein complex affects cell migration and how external cues affect cell's ability to migrate. Cell migration is one of life's basic processes, from development in the womb to immune system response, to learning and brain development, wound healing and - when it goes wrong - in cancer. Jim Bear, PhD, principal investigator on the study, says, "The ARP 2/3 protein complex is - evolutionarily speaking - very old, but very little is known about what happens to cells when it is eliminated. It was thought previously that cells could simply not survive without it. Thanks to Norman Sharpless' lab here at UNC, we were able to find a cell line where the protein can be eliminated without loss of viability in order to see what happens to cells.
DHT, which stands for Dihydrotestosterone (5Î -Dihydrotestosterone), is a male sex hormone, an androgen. 5Î -reductase, an enzyme, synthesizes DHT in the adrenal glands, hair follicles, testes and prostate. Male and female adults can lose hair as a consequence of changes in the metabolism of androgen in the body - men more commonly than women. DHT plays a major role in hair loss. Male pattern baldness, also known as androgenic alopecia or androgenetic alopecia, is caused by the hair follicle's sensitivity to DHT. The follicles miniaturize (shrink), resulting in a shorter lifespan and the abnormal production of hair. The molecular formula for DHT is C 19 H 30 O 2. The most important part of the hair follicle is the dermal papilla (papilla of hair), which is responsible for the growth of hair.