Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine demonstrated that nitrogen balance, the process of utilizing amino acids and disposing of their toxic byproducts, occurs with a precise 24-hour rhythm - also known as circadian rhythm - in mammals. Disruption of this cycle has a direct impact on survival of organisms, and may predispose one to life altering diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The study led by Darwin Jeyaraj, MD, MRCP, assistant professor of medicine at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine and cardiologist at Harrington Heart & Vascular Institute at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, who works in the laboratory of Mukesh Jain, MD, FAHA, professor of medicine, Ellery Sedgwick Jr. Chair, and director, Case Cardiovascular Research Institute at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine and the chief research officer, Harrington Heart & Vascular Institute at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, discovered that the KLF15 gene as a singular factor could control the entire process of nitrogen balance in mammals.
New Study Shows High Insulin Resistance Is Correlated With Rapid Decline In Renal Function In Elderly Populations
Elderly people with the metabolic syndrome - defined as having multiple risk factors associated with developing diabetes and heart disease - had an increased risk of chronic kidney disease, according to a recent study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). An individual is diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome when they have three or more of the following risk factors for diabetes and heart disease: high abdominal obesity, low HDL ("good") cholesterol, high blood pressure, high triglycerides (fat in the blood) and high blood glucose levels. The metabolic syndrome is more common in older populations and while previous studies have demonstrated an association between the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease, the current study is the first to investigate this association as it applies to the elderly population.
A new study has found that women who stay seated for long periods of time every day are more prone to developing type 2 diabetes, but that a similar link wasn't found in men. Researchers from the University of Leicester Departments of Health Sciences and Cardiovascular Sciences revealed that women who are sedentary for most of the day were at a greater risk from exhibiting the early metabolic defects that act as a precursor to developing type 2 diabetes than people who tend to sit less. The team assessed over 500 men and women of the age of 40 or more about the amount of time spent sitting over the course of a week, helped out by tests on the level of specific chemicals in their bloodstream that are linked to diabetes and metabolic dysfunction. It was found that the women who spent the longest time sitting had higher levels of insulin, as well as higher amounts of C-reactive protein and chemicals released by fatty tissue in the abdomen, leptin, and interleukin6, and which indicate problematic inflammation.
UC Davis scientists have uncovered a key suspect in the destructive inflammation that underlies heart disease and diabetes. The new research shows elevated levels of a receptor present on leucocytes of the innate immune response in people at risk for these chronic diseases. The receptors are the body's first line of defense against infectious invaders, and they trigger a rush of cytokines, the body's aggressive immune soldiers, into the bloodstream. The research, published in the journal Diabetes Care, studied individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors linked to many life-threatening diseases. Metabolic syndrome is found in about a third of American adults and people in other industrialized countries. The syndrome is a high-risk obesity state as previously shown by diabetes expert Ishwarlal Jialal and his team at the UC Davis Medical Center.
Revolutionary Oxygen-Generating Biomaterial To Enhance Islet Survival Developed By Diabetes Research Institute
Scientists at the Diabetes Research Institute have developed a revolutionary technique to provide critical oxygen for maintaining the survival of insulin-producing cells. This is the first time that scientists have been able to successfully deliver oxygen locally to beta cells using a biomaterial. The results of the study, which represents a major step toward the goal of developing an alternative site to house insulin-producing cells, were just published in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS). One of the major problems with the transplantation of cells, particularly beta cells, is meeting the high nutrient demand of these cells following transplantation. During the initial days of implantation, these cells do not have a functioning vascular network feeding oxygen to the cells, thus cells become starved and large cell loss occurs.