Humans are built to hunger for fat, packing it on during times of feast and burning it during periods of famine. But when deluged by foods rich in fat and sugar, the modern waistline often far exceeds the need to store energy for lean times, and the result has been an epidemic of diabetes, heart disease and other obesity-related problems. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have identified the linchpin of fat metabolism, a protein known as fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), which may open new avenues in the treatment of diabetes. In a paper published in Nature, the Evans lab reports that FGF1 activity is triggered by a high-fat diet and that mice lacking the protein swiftly develop diabetes. This suggests that FGF1 is crucial to maintaining the body's sensitivity to insulin and normal levels of sugar in the blood.
Scientists Demonstrate The Promise Of Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy Of Living Cells For Medical Applications
Knowing how a living cell works means knowing how the chemistry inside the cell changes as the functions of the cell change. Protein phosphorylation, for example, controls everything from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death (apoptosis), in cells from bacteria to humans. It's a chemical process that has long been intensively studied, not least in hopes of treating or eliminating a wide range of diseases. But until now the close-up view - watching phosphorylation work at the molecular level as individual cells change over time - has been impossible without damaging the cells or interfering with the very processes that are being examined. "To look into phosphorylation, researchers have labeled specific phosphorylated proteins with antibodies that carry fluorescent dyes, " says Hoi-Ying Holman of the U.
The Relevance Of Benchmarks Questioned In Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients Receiving Insulin Infusions
Cardiothoracic surgeons and endocrinologists from Boston Medical Center (BMC) have found that among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, achieving Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) benchmarks for glycemic control may be irrelevant when perioperative continuous insulin infusion protocols are implemented. These findings were presented at the Annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery on May 1 in San Francisco, CA. Currently, 40 percent of all patients undergoing CABG suffer from diabetes, and this number is quickly rising. Traditionally these patients have more complications following surgery, including greater risk of heart attacks, more wound infections and reduced long-term survival. Previous studies from BMC have shown that patients receiving insulin infusions during surgery and in the postoperative period to achieve blood glucose levels of less than 200mg/dl have significantly less morbidity and mortality.
No Association Found Between White Potato Consumption Baked, Boiled Mashed And Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Or Systemic Inflammation
Preliminary Research presented at The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Conference in San Diego demonstrates that habitual consumption of white potatoes (baked, boiled and mashed) is not associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes or levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation once potential confounding factors are controlled for (e.g., age, gender, and education). Previous studies examining the association between potato consumption and disease states have failed to consider demographic factors that could potentially confound the relationships such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. "One of the purposes of this study was that we hypothesized demographic factors - particularly socioeconomic status - might be associated with both potato consumption and the prevalence of obesity and diabetes.
A diet rich in greasy foods causes an imbalance in our gut flora. The composition of the gut flora seems to determine the way in which the body develops certain metabolic disorders such as diabetes, regardless of any genetic modification, gender, age or specific diet. This has recently been demonstrated by Remy Burcelin and Matteo Serino, researchers from the Inserm unit 1048 "Institute of Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (I2MC)". It is believed that nutritional additives such as gluco-oligosaccharides and dietary fibers that target the gut microbiota could prevent the development of metabolic disorders. These results have been published in the review Gut April 2012. Gut flora, otherwise knows as gut microbiota, are the bacteria that live in our digestive tract. There are roughly one thousand different species of bacteria, that are nourished partly by what we eat.