Controlling blood sugar in children and teenagers with diabetes type two is best achieved with a metformin plus rosiglitazone combo, compared to just metformin or metformin plus lifestyle changes, researchers reported in NEJM (New England Journal of Medicine). Blood-sugar control is also known as glycemic control, or blood glucose control. There are very limited reliable data to guide treatment for young patients with diabetes type 2, even though rates in this age group have been rising over the last ten years. Over the last couple of decades, the prevalence of obesity among children in the USA has risen considerably. In this study, the researchers compared the efficacy of three treatment regimes - they focused on durable glycemic control in pediatric patients who had recently been diagnosed with diabetes type 2.
A combination of two diabetes drugs, metformin and rosiglitazone, was more effective in treating youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes than metformin alone, a study funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has found. Adding an intensive lifestyle intervention to metformin provided no more benefit than metformin therapy alone. The study also found that metformin therapy alone was not an effective treatment for many of these youth. In fact, metformin had a much higher failure rate in study participants than has been reported in studies of adults treated with metformin alone. The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study is the first major comparative effectiveness trial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in young people. TODAY was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of NIH.
METABOLISM: Driving the preference for fatty foods The World Health Organization recognizes obesity as global pandemic that threatens the health of millions of people. A number of factors contribute to the development of obesity, including complex changes in cellular pathways. Improving our understanding of the molecular events that contribute to obesity could potentially improve treatment options. Naim Akhtar Khan and fellow researchers at the Universite de Bourgogne in France recently experimentally addressed how signaling pathways in taste bud cells influence the detection of dietary fat. They report that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a key regulatory protein that determines fat preference. The Khan team showed that STIM1 regulates calcium signaling in response to fatty acids.
Scientists from The Danish Stem Cell Center (DanStem) at the University of Copenhagen and Hagedorn Research Institute have gained new insight into the signaling paths that control the body's insulin production. This is important knowledge with respect to their final goal: the conversion of stem cells into insulin-producing beta cells that can be implanted into patients who need them. The research results have just been published in the well-respected journal PNAS. Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. If these beta cells are defective, the body develops diabetes. Insulin is vital to life and therefore today the people who cannot produce their own in sufficient quantities, or at all, receive carefully measured doses - often via several daily injections. Scientists hope that in the not-so-distant future it will be possible to treat diabetes more effectively and prevent secondary diseases such as cardiac disease, blindness and nerve and kidney complications by offering diabetes patients implants of new, well-functioning, stem-cell-based beta cells.
Identification Of Key Regulator Of Inflammatory Response Could Impact Treatment Of Cancer, Type 2 Diabetes And Other Diseases
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have identified a gene that plays a key role in regulating inflammatory response and homeostasis. These findings could help lead to the development of innovative methods to reduce the inflammation associated with cancer, type 2 diabetes and other diseases. The study, which was led by Valentina Perissi, PhD, assistant professor of biochemistry at BUSM, was done in collaboration with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) at the University of California, San Diego. The results are published online and in the print issue of Molecular Cell. Cells respond to inflammation by producing cytokines, which are cellular signaling protein molecules that allow for intercellular communication. Cytokines, such as TNF-alpha for example, bind to specific receptors on cellular membranes, activating an intracellular signaling process.