Researchers have identified a non-traditional pathway for stimulating a cancer-promoting protein into the cell nucleus that could be a potential combination therapy for esophageal cancer. The finding suggests a resistance mechanism for new drugs that attack the Hedgehog pathway. In the March 20 issue of the journal Cancer Cell, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reveal that the mTOR molecular pathway stimulates the activity of the Gli1 protein in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. Senior author of the study, Mien-Chie Hung, Ph.D., vice president for basic research, professor and chair of MD Anderson's Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, explained: "The Hedgehog pathway is the established, or canonical, pathway for activating Gli1.
Over the past few decades, doctors have noted a surprising trend in cancer of the tonsils and base of the tongue. Though oral cancer previously appeared predominantly in elderly patients with a history of tobacco and alcohol use, it's increasing in younger patients: 30- to 50-year-old nonsmokers with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Fortunately, the newer form of cancer tends to be less aggressive, and the latest approach to treating the tumors can avoid the debilitating consequences of open neck surgery or extensive radiation. Robotic surgery conducted through patients' mouths provides excellent results in removing squamous cell carcinoma at the back of the throat, especially in patients with HPV, a Mayo Clinic study published in the March issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings found. "We were surprised that the cancer cure results were even better than the traditional treatments that we have been doing, but that is probably almost as much of a matter that these cancers are HPV-mediated for the most part, and they respond much better to treatment, " says author Eric Moore, M.
Those suffering from nagging tinnitus can benefit from internet-based therapy just as much as patients who take part in group therapy sessions. These are the findings of a German-Swedish study in which patients with moderate to severe tinnitus tried out various forms of therapy over a ten-week period. The outcome of both the internet-based therapy and group therapy sessions was significantly better than that of a control group that only participated in an online discussion forum and thus demonstrated both the former to be effective methods of managing the symptoms of irritating ringing in the ears. The study was conducted by the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy division of the Institute of Psychology at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning at Link√ ping University in Sweden.
The results of a small phase 1 clinical trial of a non-invasive tinnitus therapy where the patient listens to sounds through headphones claims that compared to placebo, the treatment reduced tinnitus loudness and annoyance within 12 weeks in 7 out of 10 patients. Experts who welcomed the news say they now want to see the results repeated in a much bigger phase 2 trial. The trial was led by Professor Peter Tass at J√ lich Research Centre in Germany, who with his colleagues tested a treatment called Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) Neuromodulation. They write about their findings in the 13 March online issue of the journal Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. Tinnitus is a condition where people perceive they are hearing sound, but there is no corresponding external sound. It is not a disease, but a neurological symptom generated within the auditory pathways in the brain.
The first national treatment guideline for sudden hearing loss has been developed by a panel of 19 medical experts led by Robert J. Stachler, M.D., an otolaryngologist in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery. Sudden hearing loss is a condition which sends thousands of individuals in the United States to the emergency room each year. The guideline was published this month in the Journal of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Dr. Stachler, said: "In most cases, patients will have multiple visits with several physicians and undergo extensive testing before a diagnosis is made. There's also been a lack of one or more uniformly accepted treatments, or a consensus on how to counsel patients who do fully recover their hearing. By focusing on opportunities for quality improvement, the guideline should improve diagnosis, reduce unnecessary tests and imaging procedures, and improve hearing for patients affected by sudden hearing loss.