Orangutans That Have Survived Extreme Food Scarcity May Provide Better Understand Of Obesity And Eating Disorders In Humans
Rutgers Evolutionary Anthropologist Erin Vogel thinks new research published in Biology Letters, a Journal of the Royal Society, examining how endangered Indonesian orangutans - considered a close relative to humans - survive during times of extreme food scarcity might help scientists better understand eating disorders and obesity in humans. "There is such a large obesity epidemic today and yet we don't really understand the basis of the obesity condition or how these high-protein or low-protein diets work, " said Vogel, whose research, Bornean orangutans on the brink of protein bankruptcy, represents the first time scientists have looked at how these long-haired, orange-colored apes - that depend on low-protein fruit to survive - endure protein cycling, or period bouts of protein deprivation.
According to researchers at UCSF, adolescents who are hospitalized with anorexia nervosa do not gain considerable weight during their initial week in hospital by receiving treatment based on current guidelines for refeeding. The study is published in the January issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health with an associated report. The study challenges the current guidelines to feeding adolescents with anorexia nervosa during hospitalization for malnutrition. Patients should start with approximately 1, 200 calories per day and advance slowly by 200 calories every other day, according to The American Psychiatric Association, American Dietetic Association and others. The aim of this "start low and go slow" method is to avoid refeeding syndrome - a potentially deadly condition as a result of rapid electrolyte shifts, a well-known risk when introducing nutrition therapy in a malnourished patient.
Many dread gaining weight during the holiday season, but there may be hope for those who find that stress causes them to reach for yet another helping of holiday goodies. In a study by UCSF researchers published online in the Journal of Obesity, mastering simple mindful eating and stress-reduction techniques helped prevent weight gain even without dieting. Women in the study who experienced the greatest reduction in stress tended to have the most loss of deep belly fat. To a greater degree than fat that lies just under the skin, this deep abdominal fat is associated with an elevated risk for developing heart disease or diabetes. "You're training the mind to notice, but to not automatically react based on habitual patterns - to not reach for a candy bar in response to feeling anger, for example, " said UCSF researcher Jennifer Daubenmier, PhD, from the Osher Center for Integrative Medicine.
"It feels like there's two of you inside - like there's another half of you, which is my anorexia, and then there's the real K, the real me, the logic part of me, and it's a constant battle between the two." - 36 year old study participant with anorexia nervosa. People with anorexia nervosa struggle with questions about their real, or "authentic, " self - whether their illness is separate from or integral to them - and this conflict has implications for compulsory treatment, concludes a study in the Hastings Center Report. The researchers also conclude that exploring ideas of authenticity may help clinicians formulate therapeutic approaches and provides insights into whether compulsory treatment can be justified. For the study, researchers in the U.K. interviewed 29 women who were being treated for anorexia nervosa at clinics throughout the south of England.
They're the prime demographic for developing eating disorders, yet new research out of the University of Cincinnati suggests that it could be difficult for college students to notice the warning signs. Ashlee Hoffman, a UC doctoral student in health promotion and education, presented her research, titled, "University Students' Knowledge of An Ability to Identify Disordered Eating, Warning Signs and Risk Factors, " at the American Public Health Association's 139th annual meeting and exposition in Washington, DC. Disordered eating, Hoffman explains, involves unhealthy habits over time that can lead up to, but may not yet fit the medical diagnoses of an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia. Hoffman's poster research presentation is based on her survey of 428 college students.