The outer layer of the skin, called the epidermis, forms a critical physical and immunological wall that serves as the body's first line of defense against potentially harmful microorganisms. Most of the epidermis consists of cells called keratinocytes that build a mechanical barrier but also perform immune functions. Now, a new study published by Cell Press in the October issue of the journal Immunity provides evidence that stopping of a type of regulated cell death called "necroptosis" in keratinocytes is critical for the prevention of skin inflammation. The Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD) protein interacts with "death receptors" to activate a well-known programmed cell death pathway called apoptosis. Death receptors have also been shown to induce necroptosis, which is a different type of cell death and is mediated by the proteins RIP1 and RIP3.
If you have psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis and you are experiencing joint pain and swelling, you could have psoriatic arthritis, a serious disease that may lead to joint destruction and disability. New research from the National Psoriasis Foundation reveals that nearly one in four people with psoriasis - the most common autoimmune disease in the country, affecting as many as 7.5 million Americans - may have undiagnosed psoriatic arthritis, a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects the joints and tendons. This is in addition to the up to 2 million people already diagnosed with the disease. The Psoriasis Foundation study found that 22 percent of psoriasis-only participants had significant symptoms of psoriatic arthritis, such as joint pain, pain that moved from one joint to the other;
Water channels exist not only in nature - microscopical water channels are also present in the cells of the body, where they ensure that water can be transported through the protective surface of the cell. Scientists at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have discovered that one type of the body's water channels can be modified such that it becomes more stable, which may be significant in the treatment of several diseases. "It's important to understand how the water channels, which are known as 'aquaporins', in the body work, since they control many of the processes in our cells and tissues. They also determine what is to be transported into and out of the cell, and they are thus highly significant in the development of new treatments for various diseases, such as eczema, cerebral oedema, obesity and cancer ", says Kristina Hedfalk of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Gothenburg.
According to a report published Online First by Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals, most outpatient for pediatric psoriasis in the U.S. who visit dermatologists and pediatricians consist of white children aged 8 years and older, however, treatment approaches seem to vary according to physician specialty and patient age. Background information in the article states that in the U.S. approximately 2.5 % of the population is affected by psoriasis, with 1% being children from birth to 18 years. A third of all patients develop first signs and symptoms by the age of 20 years. Health professionals consider various factors, such as disease severity, presentation and distribution of lesions, patient age and the presence of concurrent conditions in determining patients' treatment.
UCLA researchers have found that the hormone estrogen may help reverse advanced pulmonary hypertension, a rare and serious condition that affects 2 to 3 million individuals in the U.S., mostly women, and can lead to heart failure. The condition causes a progressive increase in blood pressure in the main pulmonary artery, which originates in the heart's right ventricle and delivers blood to the lungs. The rise in pressure impairs heart function by enlarging the right ventricle, potentially leading to heart failure. Published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the preclinical study shows that in rats, estrogen treatment can reverse the progression of pulmonary hypertension to heart failure and can restore lung and ventricle structure and function. The disease progresses slowly, so most patients don't seek treatment until major symptoms occur, such as shortness of breath, dizziness and fainting.