Approximately 200, 000 people in the U.S. have bariatric surgery each year as a means to achieve significant weight loss. Recent reports indicating that bariatric surgery is more effective in treating people with type 2 diabetes than medication alone is likely to make this procedure even more popular. Due to excessive weight, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions, healthcare providers caring for bariatric surgical patients in both the pre- and postoperative period require a high level of skill and knowledge in order to optimize patient outcomes, according to Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient Care, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. "Now more than ever, it is important that the care of patients undergoing bariatric surgical procedures be consistent with current evidence and best practices, " says Editor-in-Chief Kristin L.
A new study presented at the International Liver Congress™ 2012 demonstrates that the gut microbiota has a profound systemic effect on bile acid metabolism.(1) Bile acids are synthesised from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolised by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. The main function of bile acid is to promote processing of dietary fat. In addition, hepatic synthesis of bile acids is a major mechanism of cholesterol breakdown in the body. Farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR) is known to play a key role in the regulation of bile acid synthesis and homeostasis. The authors propose that the gut microbiota modulates bile acid synthesis by changing the bile acid pool composition and, hence, reducing FXR inhibition in the small intestine. The study found that germ-free mice (without any gut microbiota) had elevated muricholic bile acid levels, in particular TÎ MCA (tauroconjugated Î -muricholic acid), while conventionally housed mice (with gut microbiota) had reduced levels of muricholic acids.
The international obesity epidemic is widespread, nondiscriminatory, and deadly. But do we really understand all of the factors underlying this alarming trend? The concept of energy balance (energy consumed = energy expended + energy stored) is undeniable, being driven by the first law of thermodynamics. Consequently, there is no contradiction that excessive calorie intake and plummeting levels of physical activity are largely to blame for our ever-expanding waistlines. However, scientists remain baffled as to why some individuals are particularly prone to becoming obese and if there is anything aside from lowering calorie consumption and increasing activity levels that can be done to prevent and/or reverse excessive weight gain in our most at-risk populations. Physiologists have long known that our intestines are brimming with live bacteria, some of which provide important substances (e.
A study in the April issue of Archives of Surgery, demonstrates that in comparison with laparoscopic surgery, open surgery seems to be linked to a higher risk of small-bowel obstruction (SBO). The researchers state in their study background that SBO is a common reason for emergency admission. One of SBO's major causes are intraperitoneal or abdominal adhesions, which can develop from peritoneal trauma, for instance before abdominal surgery and develop within days of a surgical procedure. The researchers state: "Laparoscopic surgery is considered to be associated with less surgical trauma, implying a reduction of adhesions", but point out that study literature on the clinical effect of laparoscopy on adhesion-related morbidity has not been convincing. In a population-based register study, which included procedures from January 2002 to December 2004, using the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's Inpatient Register, Eva Angenete, M.
In the first experiment of its kind to test the suggestion that hookworm infection can reduce some allergic responses, a UK doctor who specializes in medical entomology, infected himself with the parasite and then swallowed a pill camera to film the effect on his intestines. Dr James Logan, whose research group at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) looks for new ways to control the insects that spread deadly diseases like malaria and dengue fever, agreed to infect himself with hookworm in his debut as a tropical disease expert for the TV show Embarrassing Bodies, a new series of which went out on Channel 4 in March. In using his own body in the service of science, Logan joins self-experimenters like Sir Isaac Newton, who in the 17th century nearly went blind after staring too long at the sun in a mirror in order to study the after-images on his retinas.