Researchers at UC have confirmed that fat surrounding the outside of arteries in humans - particularly the left coronary artery - may influence the onset of coronary artery disease, or atherosclerosis, which is the leading cause of death in the U.S. These findings, presented at the American Heart Association's Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (ATVB) 2012 Scientific Sessions in Chicago, may help in identifying the molecular culprit, with the goal of creating targeted therapies for atherosclerosis before the disease forms. Coronary artery disease is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Tapan Chatterjee, PhD, and researchers in the division of cardiovascular diseases at UC found through global gene expression analysis (measurement of the activity of thousands of genes at once) that this outer fat tissue - known as perivascular fat tissue - is different from subcutaneous (beneath the skin) fat tissues in other parts of the body.
The April 25 issue of JAMA reports that patients with infective endocarditis, an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, who have implanted cardiac devices have a higher rate of complications, including valve infections, heart failure, persistent bacteremia, as well as high in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates, especially if it involves the heart valves. Background information in the study states: "Cardiac electronic devices, including permanent pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), are increasingly implanted worldwide, with estimates of more than 4.2 million patients with a permanent pacemaker or ICD implanted in the United States between 1993 and 2008. Cardiac device infection is a serious, emerging disease with a 210 percent increase in incidence between 1993 and 2008.
Contrary to current belief, a new study finds that patients with a history of diabetes are not one of the most at risk for contrast induced nephrotoxicity. Instead, the study found that patients with a history of renal disease, hypertension and/or heart disease are more likely to suffer from renal insufficiency, putting them at greater risk for contrast induced nephrotoxicity. The study, done at Northwestern Memorial Hospital-Northwestern University in Chicago, included 2, 404 patients. All patients underwent an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) test immediately before undergoing a CT examination. "Since all patients underwent the eGFR test, we had an unusual opportunity to see if the traditional risk factors truly predict reduced renal function, said Vahid Yaghmai, MD, one of the authors of the study.
An award-winning research project, funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF), has tested a new imaging method which could help improve how doctors predict a patient's risk of having a heart attack (1). Scientists from the University of Edinburgh, a BHF Centre of Research Excellence, in collaboration with the University of Cambridge are the first to demonstrate the potential of combining PET and CT scanning to image the disease processes directly in the coronary arteries that cause heart attacks (2). There are nearly 2.7 million people living with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the UK and it kills 88, 000 people each year. Most of these deaths are caused by a heart attack. Each year there are around 124, 000 heart attacks in the UK (3). The research, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) (4), involved giving over 100 people a CT calcium score to measure the amount of calcified or hardened plaques in their coronary arteries.
A new monitoring method and blood test may provide early warnings when a child's brain isn't getting enough blood during heart surgery, according to new research presented during the American Heart Association's Emerging Science Series webinar. Brain injury occurs in 30 percent to 70 percent of infants and children undergoing repair of congenital heart defects. A congenital heart defect is a heart abnormality present at birth. Out of 1, 000 live births in the United States, about 8 babies will have some kind of heart defect. Previously, there has been no way to detect brain injury during surgery as it happens. This research was a multi-center observational pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of new monitoring strategies in a high-risk population of children with congenital heart disease.