An HIV prevention trial that pre-dates the shift to antiretroviral (ARV)-based approaches is nonetheless helping to answer some of the most relevant and topical questions the field is facing today. More than three years after reporting the primary results of HPTN 035, one of the last trials of the so-called first generation microbicides, researchers from the National Institutes of Health-funded Microbicide Trials Network (MTN) reported two new sets of findings gleaned from the study's trove of statistical data and laboratory specimens. The results of both analyses were presented at the International Microbicides Conference (M2012). The meeting, which started Sunday, April 15 and ends April 18, is being held in Sydney. Are women who use hormonal contraception at greater risk of acquiring HIV?
IRMA (International Rectal Microbicide Advocates) will release "On the Map: Ensuring Africa's Place in Rectal Microbicide Research and Advocacy" at a special evening reception at the international Microbicides 2012 conference at the Sydney Convention and Exhibition Center. The report can be found here:* A cornerstone of IRMA's Project ARM (Africa for Rectal Microbicides) initiative, the strategy document developed by African advocates, researchers, and global allies outlines priority actions to ensure Africa fully engages in rectal microbicide research and advocacy activities, including the integration of safe anal-sex messaging into HIV prevention programs. "For far too long the operating principle concerning the HIV epidemic in Africa has been that it is solely heterosexual, and that sexual transmission is entirely driven by unprotected vaginal intercourse between men and women, " said Jim Pickett, IRMA chair.
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) pandemic is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), which attacks the immune system and leaves infected individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections. AIDS and HIV-1 are thought to have a relatively short history in humans, with the first infections likely occurring around the turn of the 20th century. HIV-1 is derived from highly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that infect modern primates, including chimpanzees. SIVs must have crossed the species barrier to infect humans at some point in the past, but the molecular adaptations that permitted a new host are unknown. Drs. Beatrice Hahn and Frank Kirchoff led an international research effort to understand what adaptations allow a chimpanzee strain of SIV to replicate in human tissues.
A once-a-day pill to help prevent HIV infection could significantly reduce the spread of AIDS, but only makes economic sense if used in select, high-risk groups, Stanford University researchers conclude in a new study. The researchers looked at the cost-effectiveness of the combination drug tenofovir-emtricitabine, which was found in a landmark 2010 trial to reduce an individual's risk of HIV infection by 44 percent when taken daily. Patients who were particularly faithful about taking the drug reduced their risk to an even greater extent - by 73 percent. The results generated so much interest that the Stanford researchers decided to see if it would be cost-effective to prescribe the pill daily in large populations, a prevention technique known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. They created an economic model focused on men who have sex with other men, or MSM, as they account for more than half of the estimated 56, 000 new infections annually in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A new study by researchers at Montefiore Medical Center reveals that the incidence of anal carcinoma (AC) is increasing among HIV-positive women. The study entitled "High Prevalence of High Grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Infected Women Screened for Anal Cancer" will appear in the Journal of Aids on May 1st, and was conducted from March 2008 to December 2010. Mark H. Einstein, M.D., M.S., Director of Clinical Research, Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Montefiore Medical Center and Professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, explained: "Anal cancer was widely associated with HIV-Infected men who have sex with men. But now, this study reveals anal precancerous disease in a high proportion of women with HIV ." The researchers examined 715 asymptomatic HIV-Infected women and found that 10.